Could you be low in essential vitamins and minerals? Learn how to spot nutrient shortfalls in your diet based on chronic symptoms.
Sun exposure generates less vitamin D in darker-skinned people and the elderly. Obesity increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, too.
What to eat: Salmon, egg yolks, vitamin D-fortified milk, and vitamin D-enhanced mushrooms.
Supplement with: 6,000 IU vitamin D3 daily for eight weeks for deficiency, then 1,500−2,000 IU daily to maintain levels.
Possible deficiency: Vitamin C.
About 6 percent of U.S. adults are vitamin C deficient. Vitamin C’s ability to shorten the common cold is strongest in those with a vitamin C deficiency or those who are under great physical stress, such as soldiers and marathoners.
What to eat: Red peppers, citrus fruits, broccoli, tomatoes, and kiwifruit.
Supplement with: 200 mg vitamin C daily for optimal health.
Possible deficiency: Iodine.
Especially at risk are pregnant women and those with hypertension who limit salt. Processed foods supply most salt intake, which is usually noniodized.
What to eat: Seaweed, saltwater fish, eggs, dairy products.
Supplement with: 150 mcg potassium iodide daily, or more if directed by your doctor and monitored.
Possible deficiency: Vitamin K2.
Vitamin K2 directs calcium to bones, keeping them strong, and prevents calcium from accumulating in arteries, promoting flexibility.
What to eat: Cheese, natto (fermented soy), grass-fed butter, liver.
Supplement with: 120-240 mcg MK-7 daily; consult doctor if taking an anticoagulant drug.
Possible deficiency: Vitamin B12.
Most at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency are vegans, older adults, weight loss surgery patients, antacid users, and those taking metformin (a diabetes drug).
What to eat: Fish, beef, yogurt, cheese, tempeh, nutritional yeast.
Supplement with: 500-750 mcg each of methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin daily.
Possible deficiency: Iron.
Low stores of iron (ferritin) may contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Iron is needed to make the brain chemical dopamine, necessary for focus.
What to eat: Lean beef, spinach, dark chocolate, cashews, fortified cereal.
Supplement with: 12-60 mg daily for deficiency, based on age.
Possible deficiency: Magnesium.
A majority of Americans don’t get enough of this mineral. Shortfalls may increase risk of heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches.
What to eat: Nuts, seeds, legumes, spinach, oats, barley.
Supplement with: 300-400 mcg chelated magnesium (such as magnesium glycinate, or other form of magnesium ending in “ate”) daily.
Possible deficiency: Folate.
The MTHFR gene directs processing of folate. A common mutation in this gene (C677T) may increase miscarriages and male infertility. Supplementing with methylated folate may help.
What to eat: Dark green vegetables, legumes, asparagus, sunflower seeds.
Supplement with: 400-600 mcg L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate daily for fertility, guided by a trained doctor (find one at mthfr.net)
Symptom: Distorted taste or poor appetite.
Possible deficiency: Zinc.
Although blatant zinc deficiency is uncommon in the U.S., it’s more likely in the elderly. Deficiency contributes to changes of aging, such as impaired immunity and increased inflammation.
What to eat: Oysters, beef, turkey breast, sprouted watermelon seeds, pumpkin seeds, cashews.
Supplement with: 15-25 mg chelated zinc (such as zinc glycinate) daily
Symptom: Poor immunity or muscle weakness.
Possible deficiency: Vitamin E.
Overt deficiency is uncommon, but more than 90 percent of Americans don’t meet the dietary recommendations (RDA). Vitamin E intake above the RDA may improve immune function, especially in the elderly.
What to eat: Certain unroasted nuts and nut oils, including almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts, and sunflower seeds.
Supplement with: 200-800 mg mixed tocopherols daily to support immunity.
SOURCE: This article by Jessie Shafer, RD and images by Katie Eberts is posted by permission Delicious Living (and its parent company New Hope Network), a trusted voice in the natural living community for 30 years.